Assessment of Radiated Electromagnetic Waves from Base Station Antennas using Calculation and Field Measurement Techniques

Michael Atenaga, Joseph Isabona


For about a century now, several telecommunication devices have been developed by engineers and scientists to assist man for easy information communication and reception.  A popular one among the telecommunication devices is the base station antennas which uses radiofrequency electromagnetic wave energy to broadcast radio information signals during operation.  The main concern of these BS antennas and their cellular phone devices is the possible adverse human and public health effect of the amount of electromagnetic (EM) wave radiations that emanate from them, especially at proximity during usage. The exposure to EM waves emanating from BSs is a continuous process, and it irradiates the entire body parts and tissues exposed to them at different levels based on position and separation distance. In this work, a combination of both analytical calculation and field strength measurement approach is proposed to the amount EM waves radiation from a randomly selected BS antennas operating in a typical urban residential area of Benin City. With calculation method, highest power density values for operator A and B are 2.34 and 1.17W/m2.  By means of field measurement, highest power density values are 0.0016 W/m2, 0.0024 W/m2, 0.0021 W/m2for operator A and 0.0019 W/m2, 0.0021W/m2, 0.0004 W/m2 for operator B. By comparing the above results with the recommended safety limit of 9W/m2 by ICNIRP for the public, it is clear that the level of electromagnetic radiation from the investigated antennas are safe for human health.

Full Text:



Ericsson Mobility Report, 15-06-2018)

J. Isabona, Harnessing Telecommunications Revolution in Nigeria: A Case Study.” Wireless and Mobile Technologies, vol.1 (1),pp.20-24, 2013. doi: 10.12691/wmt-1-1-4.

E.E. Fesenko, V.R. Makar, E.G. Novoselova, and V.B. Sadovnikov, “Microwaves andcellular immunity: Effect of whole body microwave irradiation on tumor necrosis factor production in mouse cells”. Bioelectrochemical Bioenerg, vol.49 (1), pp.29-35, 1999.

C.M,Krause, L. Sillanmaki, M., Koivisto,A. Haggqvist, C. Saarela, A. Revonsuo, M. Laineand H. Hamalainen "Effects of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on the EEG during a memory task”, Neuroreport, vol.11 (4), pp. 761-764, 2000.

H.S. Sabah (2013). Study of the Cell Towers Radiation Levels in Residential Areas, Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Electronics and Communication Systems

R. Santini,P. Santini,J.M. Danze, P. Le Ruz and M. Seigne, Study of the health of peopleliving in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations: Incidence according to distance and sex,Pathology Biology, vol. 50(6), pp.369-73, 2002.

P.I. Enyinna, and G.O Avwir, “Characterization of the Radiofrequency Radiation Potential of Alakahia and Choba Communities, Nigeria”, Working and Living Environmental protection, vol. 7, pp 25-31, 2010.

Asiegbu, A.D. and O.O. Ogunlaja. “Preliminary Investigation of RF Exposure levels from Mobile Telephone Base Stations in Abia,south east Nigeria”, International Journal of Current Research, vol. 11, pp. 47-53, 2010.

Z.A. bitoye, A.M. Ibitoye Aweda, A.M.Assessment of radiofrequency power density distribution around GSM and broadcast antenna masts in Lagos City, Nigeria Nig," QJ Hospital Med., vol. 21, pp. 35-40, 2011.

A.Aminu, A.T, Danladi, A.T, Yahaya, H.A and H.A. Zakariyya ‘‘Measurement of Electromagnetic Waves Radiated from Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) for Assessing Exposure Limit in Kaduna State’’, International Journal of Engineering and Science (IJES), vol. 3(8), pp 28-34, 2014.

L.A. Akinyemi, O. Shoewu, O.A. Pinponsu, J.O. Emagbetere, and F.O. Edeko ‘‘Effects of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) on Humans in Ikeja Area of Lagos State’’, Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 3( 8), pp 28-34, 2014.

O. D Ojuh, and J. Isabona, Radio Frequency EMF Exposure due to GSM Mobile Phone Base Stations: Measurement and Analysis in Nigerian Environment, Nigerian Journal of Technology, vol.34 (4), pp. 809-814, 2015.

J. Isabona and I. Odesanya, Quantitative Estimation of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure in the Vicinity of Base Transceiver Stations via in-situ Measurements Approach, Journal of Applied Science and Research, 2015, 3 (2):28-40

J. Isabona and O.D. Ojuh. Experimental Assessment of Specific Absorption Rate Using Measured Electric Field Strength in Benson Idahosa University and Environs. American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2015, pp. 92-96. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20150402.16.

K. Obahiagbon and J. Isabona, Specific Absorption Rate and Temperature rise Computation in Human Tissues due to Electromagnetic Field Emission from Mobile Phones at 900MHz and 1800MHz, Computing, Information Systems, Development Informatics and Allied Research Journal, Vol. 6, No.2, pp. 53-61, 2015.

ICNIRP Guidelines, Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to time-varying Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz), Health Physics, Volume 74 (4), 1998.

MMA, (2012), Mobile Manufacturers Forum (MMA): RF safety at base station sites,



  • There are currently no refbacks.

© International Journals of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering (IJARCSSE)| All Rights Reserved | Powered by Advance Academic Publisher.